What to watch for
After completing this lesson, you’ll be able to:
- Outline the major issues related to social media and messaging
- Describe the current social media and messaging landscape
The first time I taught this class, these were two separate lessons. As I thought about it more, though, it made sense to combine them—messaging is huge 1, but it’s inextricably intertwined with the broader social media landscape.
Another kind-of new thing here: I’ll be sprinkling in, though not entirely relying upon, notes and ideas from the work of student groups in past semesters.
Finally, one last note: even though these are the most up-to-date sources I could find, they still feel a bit dated—that’s how fast this space in particular moves!
“Mobile Messaging and Social Media 2015” by Maeve Duggan
(3,071 words / 15-18 minutes)
- On the rising importance of messaging: “2015 marks the first time Pew Research Center has asked specifically about mobile messaging apps as a separate kind of mobile activity apart from cell phone texting. And already, according to a new survey, 36% of smartphone owners report using messaging apps such as WhatsApp, Kik or iMessage, and 17% use apps that automatically delete sent messages such as Snapchat or Wickr. Both of these kinds of apps are particularly popular among young adults. Half (49%) of smartphone owners ages 18 to 29 use messaging apps, while 41% use apps that automatically delete sent messages.”
- “Some 15% of internet users read or comment in discussion forums such as reddit, Digg or Slashdot, while 10% use the blogging website Tumblr. Young adults are particularly likely to use both Tumblr and discussion forums more generally, and men are more likely than women to participate in discussion forums online.” I can’t believe Slashdot got a mention by name! In the early 2000s, Slashdot was the place for tech news. Before reading this piece, I hadn’t even thought of it in years, let alone visited. How quickly times change.
- “Today, 59% of Instagram users are on the platform daily, including 35% who visit several times a day. This 59% figure reflects a 10-point increase from September 2014 when 49% of Instagram users reported visiting the site on a daily basis… Twitter saw no significant changes in its proportion of daily users. Some 38% of those on Twitter use the site daily… Facebook continues to have the most engaged users – 70% log on daily, including 43% who do so several times a day.”
- Re: the last quote: the extent to which Facebook dominates the social / messaging space is astounding. I love Twitter dearly, but it’s stagnant or shrinking in many regards. Facebook is not only Facebook, but also Instagram and WhatsApp. I bet Mark Zuckerberg’s generally a pretty happy guy, but I’d be willing to bet he’s pretty ticked they weren’t able to snag Snapchat, the only thing that looks like a real competitor / threat to FB’s businesses.
“Social media“, Wikipedia
(17,450 words / 88-95 minutes)
- Spend some time starting at the graphic at the top of the article—such astounding variety. Really, though, it should be no surprise—social media and messaging are, in a sense, at the heart of nearly all new media and all computing. Tools that enable an individual to do something are amazing! But, outside of a very few odd cases, great individual efforts are ultimately shared with or performed for others. As a friend and mentor of mine once taught me, people first, then computers—or, to put it another way, computers for people—and relationships.
- “The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition.” No joke.
- Time to feel like you’re getting your money’s worth out of this class. Here are some fancy college-y words for you: “Social media operate in a dialogic transmission system (many sources to many receivers). This is in contrast to traditional media that operates under a monologic transmission model (one source to many receivers).”
- I really like how this article wrestles with how exactly to define social media. Reminds me a lot of our first lesson, trying to define what new media is.
- I like the honeycomb framework “that defines social media by using seven functional building blocks: identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups.”
- The list of most popular social media platforms underscores a point that I hope to make more consistently throughout this course: people outside of the United States also use computers, and—shocker—they sometimes use them differently than we do. See some of the non-required readings for more on this.
- The “Criticisms” and “Negative effects” sections of this article are worth reading thoroughly and considering thoughtfully. This highlights another issue I hope to make more consistently throughout the course: the downsides / negatives of the technologies we’re talking about. My individual personality is to look at the positives and the potential good unlocked by new technologies, but it’s vitally important to think critically about potential and actual negatives and downsides of new technologies. (That said, I love that these sections are followed by “Positive effects”!)
- I thought it was mentioned in this article, but it isn’t, so I’ll include it here anyway. I think the term “context collapse” as defined here is very useful:
“Context collapse is a concept used by academics writing about the effects of social media and the contexts they give rise to. The term refers to the audiences possible online as opposed to limited groups we normally interact with in face-to-face interactions. In those bounded interactions, people adjust their tone and presentation to fit social context. In context collapse, this adjusting becomes impossible.”
- The various “Impacts” sections are good reading, too.
“Social Media Usage: 2005-2015” by Andrew Perrin
(1,605 words / 8-10 minutes)
A quick scan of the bolded statistics here will do. Still, very much worth reading / knowing!
“Messaging: Mobile’s killer app” by Ben Thompson
(1,572 words / 8-10 minutes)
Ben Thompson is one of my favorite authors. Though I frequently disagree with him, his writing’s consistently thought-provoking and challenges me to look at the world from new perspectives.
In any case, the entire opening of the piece is worth quoting at length:
Before the Internet, the nodes of communication were houses, and the killer app was the telephone. Presuming both you and I were in our respective houses, I could dial a number, and we could talk. It was marvelous, and in retrospect, primitive; real-time is much less interesting, and much more limiting, when it’s the only means of communication.
In the late 1970s, the computer came along, and while it made us incredibly more efficient, it didn’t truly alter the definition of communication. That took the world wide web, and its killer app: the browser.
Now the nodes of communication were computers, and while real-time was still a possibility, it was passive communication that defined the web. I, along with every individual and organization on earth, could create a web page, and you could view it, at a time convenient to you. The place, though, was only at the computer.
Seven years ago, the computer became pocketable, but the original use cases were about making the passive presentation of information accessible not just at a time convenient to the viewer, but also at any place: the web was now everywhere.
Still, it’s only recently that the killer app for this era, when the nodes of communication are smartphones, has become apparent, and it is messaging. While the home telephone enabled real-time communication, and the web passive communication, messaging enables constant communication. Conversations are never ending, and friends come and go at a pace dictated not by physicality, but rather by attention. And, given that we are all humans and crave human interaction and affection, we are more than happy to give massive amounts of attention to messaging, to those who matter most to us, and who are always there in our pockets and purses.
Also worth noting is the Social / Communications map toward the end of the article:
Note especially the term “ephemeral.”
Fall 2015 Student Notes on Social Media
Intro from John: The following are notes from the Fall 2015 section of NMIX 2020. I’ve included them because they provide concise, scannable information about the history of social media. Enjoy!
Earliest forms of social media:
1979 – UseNet
1988 – Internet relay chats
1997 – Six Degrees
By 2000, around 100 million people had access to the Internet
Late 1990s – AIM, blogs, chat rooms
2002 – Friendster
May 2003 – LinkedIn
July 2003 – Myspace
February 2004 – Facebook
July 2006 – Twitter
2007 – Tumblr
March 2010 – Pinterest
October 2010 – Instagram
June 2011 – Google+
September 2011 – Snapchat
June 2012 – Vine
Fall 2015 Student Notes on Messaging
Intro from John: These notes are also from the Fall 2015 section of NMIX 2020 and provide some good quick background on the history of messaging.
Instant Messaging, also known as IM, became a more direct form of communication than previous messaging forms such as email. IM connects two people who are each online and lets them communicate in real time. Compare this to an email, which would be sent to a recipient who may be logged in or offline.
One of the earliest forms of IM was made possible by Mirabilis in November of 1996. It was called ICQ, which was short for “I seek you.”
The first text message was sent by Niel Papworth on December 3, 1992. Richard Jarvis was the recipient. It read “Merry Christmas”. Text messages are a form of asynchronous (not happening simultaneously) communication and are limited to 160 characters. This limit is based on research conducted by Friedhelm Hillebrand that argued that most messages could fit within that constraint.
In 1999, people were able to send text messages across networks. This is when texting began to gain traction.
In 2000, Americans were sending on average about 35 text messages a month.
In 2010, 6.1 trillion text messages were sent worldwide, which is about 200,000 per minute.
“Teens, Social Media, and Technology Overview 2015” by Amanda Lenhart
A nice, relatively brief overview of the trends among what many would consider the most important (or at least most trend-setting) demographic for social media and messaging.
“Snapchat’s ladder” by Ben Thompson
Another great read from Ben Thompson, this time focusing on Snapchat.
- Describe your typical day of social media / messaging use.
- What was the first social media tool / messaging tool you used?
- What are your thoughts about ephemeral messaging?
- Discuss the concept of “context collapse.”
- Play a little nerdy game: use the seven concepts of the honeycomb framework (“identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups”) to describe different social and messaging tools
- Take a look at the changes coming to Messages in iOS 10—what are your thoughts?
Words on / reading time for this page: 1,712 words / 8-11 minutes
Words in / reading time for required readings: 23,698 words / 119-133 minutes
Total words in / reading time for this lesson: 22,952 words / 127-144 minutes